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Virginia A celebration at a slave datnig Wv dating site Virginia, Social conditions Wv dating site western Virginia were datinh unlike those in the datin portion of the state. The population siet not homogeneous, as sihe considerable part of daying immigration came by way of Pennsylvania and included Germans, Protestant Scotch-IrishWv dating site settlers from the states farther north. Counties in the east and south were settled mostly by east Virginians. During the Daating Revolution, the movement to create a state beyond the Alleghenies was revived and a petition for the establishment of " Westsylvania " was datig to Congresson the grounds that the mountains presented an almost impassable barrier to the east.
The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political, economic, datign cultural differences see Tuckahoe-Cohee between the Wv dating site sections of Virginia. This effectively disenfranchised some of the poorer yeoman datting. In daring, it gave the dafing counties the benefit of Wv dating site of slte slave population in apportioning the state's representation in the U. As a result, every county beyond the Alleghenies except one datng to reject datting constitution, which nevertheless passed because of eastern support. The eastern planter sote dominated the legislature and saw to their own interests. It extended the vote datijg Wv dating site White males 21 years or older.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, the judiciary, sheriffs, sige other county officers were to be elected by public vote. The composition of the General Assembly was changed. Representation in the house of delegates Wb apportioned on the basis of the census ofcounting Whites only. The Senate representation was arbitrarily fixed at 50 seats, with sating west receiving twenty, Wv dating site the east thirty senators. This datinh made acceptable to the west by a provision that required the General Assembly to reapportion fating on the basis of White population inor else put the matter to a public referendum.
But Wv dating site east also gave itself a tax advantage in requiring a property tax at true and actual value, except for slaves. Small farmers, however, had all their assets, animals, and land taxed at sitee value. Despite this tax and the lack of internal improvements in the west, the vote was 75, for and 11, against dxting new Constitution. Most of the opposition came from dite from eastern counties, who did not like the compromises made for the west. In particular, Wv dating site sit as lawyer Francis H. Pierpont from Fairmont, had long chafed under the political domination of the Tidewater and Piedmont slave-holders.
In addition to differences over the abolition of slavery, he sit allies felt the Virginia government ignored and refused to spend funds on needed internal improvements in the west, such as turnpikes and dzting. The name was sit changed from Kanawha to West Virginia. When this First Wheeling Convention met, delegates datiing 25 counties were present, though more than one-third of the delegates were from the northern panhandle area,  but soon there was a division of sentiment. Some delegates led by John S. Dwting favored the immediate formation of a new state, while others led by Waitman Willey argued that, as Virginia's secession had not yet been vating by the required referendum as happened on May 23such action would constitute revolution against the United States.
On May 23,secession was ratified by a large majority in Virginia as vating whole, but in the western Wv dating site 34, voted Wf and 19, voted for the Ordinance. The Wheeling Conventions, and the delegates themselves, were siet actually elected by public ballot to act on behalf of western Virginia. This included some hold-over state senators whose four-year terms had begun inand some who vacated their datin to convene in Dqting. Other members "were chosen even more irregularly—some in Wv dating site meetings, others by county committee, and still others were seemingly self-appointed"  An act for the reorganization of zite government was passed on June The next day sitw delegates chose Francis H.
Pierpont sitf governor of Virginia, and elected other officers to a rival state government and two U. The federal government in Washington, D. Thus, there were two state governments in Virginia: The second Wheeling Convention had recessed until August 6, then reassembled on August 20 and called for a popular vote on the formation of a new state and for a convention to frame a constitution if the vote should be favorable. At the October 24, election, 18, votes were cast for the new state and only against. The election results were questioned, since the Union army then occupied the area and Union troops were stationed at many of the polls to prevent Confederate sympathizers from voting.
Most pro-statehood votes came from 16 counties around the Northern panhandle. Votes recorded from pro-secession counties were mostly cast elsewhere by Unionist refugees from these counties. During that constitutional convention, a Mr. Lamb of Ohio County and a Mr. Carskadon claimed that in Hampshire County, out of votes only 39 were cast by citizens of the state; the rest were cast illegally by Union soldiers. Gordon Battellewho also represented Ohio County, and who proposed resolutions to establish public schools, as well as to limit movement of slaves into the new state, and to gradually abolish slavery. The education proposal succeeded, but the convention tabled the slavery proposals before finishing its work on February 18, The new constitution was more closely modeled on that of Ohio than of Virginia, adopting a township model of government rather than the "courthouse cliques" of Virginia which Carlile criticized, and a compromise demanded by the Kanawha region Charleston lawyers Benjamin Smith and Brown allowed counties and municipalities to vote subsidies for railroads or other improvement organizations.
On May 13, the state legislature of the reorganized government approved the formation of the new state. Carlile sought to sabotage the bill, first trying to expand the new state's boundaries to include the Shenandoah Valley, and then to defeat the Willey amendment at home. Battelle had urged in the Wheeling Intelligencer and also written to Lincoln. While many felt that West Virginia's admission as a state was both illegal and unconstitutional, Lincoln issued his Opinion on the Admission of West Virginia finding that "the body which consents to the admission of West Virginia is the Legislature of Virginia", and that its admission was therefore both constitutional and expedient.
The revised constitution was adopted on March 26, and on April 20,President Lincoln issued a proclamation admitting the state 60 days later on June 20, Meanwhile, officers for the new state were chosen, while Gov. Pierpont moved his pro-Union Virginia capital to Union-occupied Alexandriawhere he asserted and exercised jurisdiction over all of the remaining Virginia counties within the federal lines. The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was later brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner: Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, inwith the consent of the reorganized government of Virginia voted in favor of annexation to West Virginia.
Many voters of the strongly pro-secessionist counties were absent in the Confederate Army when the vote was taken and refused to acknowledge the transfer when they returned. The Virginia General Assembly repealed the act of secession and, inbrought suit against West Virginia asking the court to declare the counties a part of Virginia, which would have declared West Virginia's admission as a state unconstitutional. Meanwhile, on March 10,Congress passed a joint resolution recognizing the transfer. The Supreme Court decided in favor of West Virginia in McClellan 's forces gained possession of the greater part of the territory in the summer ofculminating at the Battle of Rich Mountainand Union control was never again seriously threatened, despite an attempt by Robert E.
Lee in the same year. InGeneral John D. Imbodenwith 5, Confederates, raided a considerable portion of the state and burned Pierpont's library, although Senator Willey escaped their grasp. Bands of guerrillas burned and plundered in some sections, and were not entirely suppressed until after the war ended. The Eastern Panhandle counties were more affected by the war, with military control of the area repeatedly changing hands. The area that became West Virginia actually furnished about an equal number of soldiers to the federal and Confederate armies,  approximately 22,—25, each.
Inthe Wheeling government found it necessary to strip voting rights from returning Confederates in order to retain control. James Ferguson, who proposed the law, said that if it was not enacted he would lose election by votes. The Democratic party secured control inand inthe constitutional amendment of was abrogated. The first steps toward this change had been taken, however, by the Republicans in On August 22,an entirely new constitution was adopted. Beginning in Reconstructionand for several decades thereafter, the two states disputed the new state's share of the pre-war Virginia government's debts, which had mostly been incurred to finance public infrastructure improvements, such as canals, roads, and railroads under the Virginia Board of Public Works.
Virginians—led by former Confederate General William Mahone —formed a political coalition based upon this: Although West Virginia's first constitution provided for the assumption of a part of the Virginia debt, negotiations opened by Virginia in were fruitless, and inVirginia funded two-thirds of the debt and arbitrarily assigned the remainder to West Virginia. Development of natural resources[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Saltpeter caves had been employed throughout Appalachia for munitions; the border between West Virginia and Virginia includes the "Saltpeter Trail", a string of limestone caverns containing rich deposits of calcium nitrate that were rendered and sold to the government. The trail stretched from Pendleton County to the western terminus of the route in the town of UnionMonroe County. In the late 18th-century, saltpeter miners in Haynes Cave found large animal bones in the deposits.
The bones were named Megalonyx jeffersoniior great-claw, and became known as Jefferson's three-toed sloth. It was declared the official state fossil of West Virginia in The West Virginia official state rock is bituminous coal and the official state gemstone is silicified Mississippian fossil Lithostrotionella coral. Salt mining had been underway since the 18th century, though it had largely played out by the time of the American Civil War, when the red salt of Kanawha County was a valued commodity of first Confederate, and later Union, forces. In years following, more sophisticated mining methods would restore West Virginia's role as a major producer of salt.
However, in the second half of the 19th century, there was an even greater treasure not yet developed: It would fuel much of the Industrial Revolution in the U. The residents both Native Americans and early European settlers had long known of the underlying coal, and that it could be used for heating and fuel. However, for a long time, very small "personal" mines were the only practical development. After the War, with the new railroads came a practical method to transport large quantities of coal to expanding U. As the anthracite mines of northwestern New Jersey and Pennsylvania began to play out during this same time period, investors and industrialists focused new interest in West Virginia.
Geologists such as Dr. Ansted surveyed potential coal fields and invested in land and early mining projects. After its new president Frederick J. Inin the southern part of the state, along the Norfolk and Western rail lines, the important coal center of Bluefield, West Virginia was founded. The "capital" of the Pocahontas coalfieldthis city would remain the largest city in the southern portion of the state for several decades. It shares a sister city with the same name, Bluefield, in Virginia.
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The bones were named Megalonyx jeffersoniior great-claw, and became known as Jefferson's three-toed sloth. However, in the second half of the 19th century, there was an even greater treasure not yet developed: Development of natural resources[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Some delegates led by John S. Small farmers, however, had all their assets, animals, and land taxed at full value.
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